On this episode of ID the Future, Casey Luskin interviews Biologic Insitute director Douglas Axe about his peer-reviewed paper in BIO-Complexity, "The Limit of Complex Adaptation: An Analysis Based on a Simple Model of Structured Bacterial Populations."

Dr. Axe explains complex adaptations -- adaptive changes that require more than one simple mutation to a genome in order for a particular adaptation to work -- and the difficulty Darwinian evolution faces when beneficial mutations have maladaptive intermediate stages.